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Read Download Online Free Now eBook Chuva De Novembro By Pet Torres [EPUB KINDLE PDF EBOOK]. (c) - page 1 of 8. Amazônia Oriental em Altamira, PA, Brasil, para os períodos mais (+ chuva) e menos chuvosos (- chuva), entre dezembro de a novembro de Variabilidade climática sazonal e anual da chuva e veranicos no Estado do Paraná. Rev. Ceres, Viçosa, v. . verno) e de setembro a novembro (primavera).
This model, henceforth referred to as "agribusiness," is based on the world policy of market globalization and is represented by the interests of multinational corporate conglomerates. RAP ; 40 2 Quim Nova ; 24 1 Crops became highly dependent on inputs such as pesticides, and Pignati et al.
Rio de Janeiro: Fiocruz; Campinas: Universidade Estadual de Campinas; Cien Saude Colet ; 17 6 In: Abrasco. Rio de Janeiro: Abrasco; Quim Nova ; 30 5 Faced with this situation, one may assume that cities that operate based on predominately agricultural economies and use pesticides in abundance must develop health policies with specific and situational focus on health problems resulting from these issues and their determinants - meaning that actions and services should not be limited to those traditionally offered by healthcare units, thereby requiring additional efforts to mobilize and interrelate other governmental and non-governmental agencies and the involvement of workers, entrepreneurs and society at large.
Considering proposals prepared and presented by several segments of the federal government calling for decentralization of healthcare actions, including surveillance, this study sought to investigate whether health surveillance practices in cities that utilize large quantities of pesticides account for the health impacts thereof.
This study adopted a more expansive concept of Health Surveillance, understood as the integration of epidemiological, health, environmental and occupational health surveillance to be carried out by state SES, acronym in Portuguese and municipal health departments SMS, acronym in Portuguese. This concept has yet to be consolidated by the Brazilian National Healthcare System SUS, acronym in Portuguese which is fraught with a dispute between the provision of care model based on hospitals and focused on disease, versus the model developed through special campaigns and programs.
Cad Saude Publica ; 18 Supl. One would suspect that there were no intra- and intersectoral surveillance actions to monitor the use of pesticides in an effort to prevent harm to health and the environment. The study sought to evaluate, based on the perception of social and technical players and organizational managers, how intra- and intersectoral actions for surveillance and monitoring of pesticide use are executed within the perspective of harm to health and the environment.
Methods A qualitative study conducted via analysis of interviews with subjects representing organizations responsible for surveillance of the impact of pesticides on health and the environment in the cities and state of Mato Grosso MT , involving oversight and control of the commercialization, storage, transportation, application and disposal of empty containers, as well as the participation of organized society. In conducting the study, cities characterized by elevated levels of agricultural production were selected, as they in turn use elevated quantities of pesticides.
Sixteen of those interviewed were managers and employees of Municipal Health Departments, four of which were heads of the Municipal Health Department SMS and the remainder being technicians responsible for health, epidemiological and environmental surveillance.
On the state level, four subjects were interviewed at Regional Health Offices ERS, acronym in Portuguese , two of whom managers and the remaining two technicians responsible for health surveillance. Interviews were scheduled in advance and all subjects signed an Informed Consent and were informed of their right to secrecy and the privacy of their identities.
Following a pre-established script with open questions, all interviews were conducted by the author of this study, recorded using a digital recorder and transferred to Windows Media Player, after which they were transcribed and typed in Microsoft Word. Using these interviews, we sought to interpret, based on subjects' discourse, their perceptions and meanings that would allow for an analysis of actions developed by the institutions they represent.
In: Minayo MCS, organizadora. The following procedure was adopted to analyze the content collected in interviews. The first step consisted of a pre-analysis, reading the transcribed interviews.
At this point, it is to be understood that what was said does not encompass everything - the analyst must seek out the effects of meaning. This procedure led to the interpretation of that which was said and a classification and ordering of the many elements considered as thematic axes.
These axes were created based on pertinent "excerpts of discourse" anticipated in interview scripts or arising spontaneously during interviews. Texto Contexto Enferm ; 15 4 Analyzing interviews allowed for a survey of how the interviewed subjects perceived meaning in the different questions asked.
As such, to achieve the objectives of this study, the following categories were established for presentation and discussion of results: a Chemical-dependent production model: a 1 hegemonic position; a 2 counter-hegemonic position; b risks of pesticides to health and the environment; c the roles of municipal agencies in health surveillance, agriculture, environment, labor unions and rural producers and social control.
Results and discussion Chemical-dependent production model Hegemonic position The majority of subjects interviewed, independent of whether they were managers, employees of municipal departments, union representatives - both of producers or laborers and other parties - understand that the economy of their region is completely dependent on agribusiness and recognize that their cities are host to highly-developed agriculture, using cutting-edge technology, and that to increase agricultural production, maintain the region's productive cycle and generate employment, the use of pesticides is considered necessary, given their basic role in controlling crop pests.
Representatives of producer unions, some laborer representatives and municipal managers, particularly those tied to agriculture and the environment, understand that food production is pegged to the use of pesticides and that there is no other way in which to produce food. They defend that rural producers offer healthy food in sufficient quantity to guarantee that the population has access to products at a low price.
In their opinion, pesticides are used to treat diseases that are inherent to crops and they do not believe that food could be produced without the use thereof. One can clearly see the defense of agribusiness and the use of pesticides, followed by a discourse that seeks to minimize the impacts of this practice. In taking this position, these subjects therefore consider impacts on health and the environment to be quite limited, as pesticides are applied correctly and with the use of appropriate technology.
Nonetheless, subjects recognize that laws are quite lax in Brazil and that certain products banned in Europe are freely used in the country. Counter-hegemonic position Other interviews gave a conflicting impression, particularly those of labor union representatives and municipal health department technicians, recognizing that the entire population, in addition to laborers that work directly with pesticides, is exposed to contamination risks, since crops in the cities being studied are mainly located in urban areas and aerial and land-based crop dusting increases exposure levels, as stated by Moreira et al.
Cien Saude Colet ; 7 2 They recognized that pesticides are utilized in abundance and may be harmful to their health and that of their families and contaminate the environment in which they live. They understand pesticides to be risks that must be prevented. Risks of pesticides to health and the environment It is important to note that independent of education level, position held in municipal administration, age or gender, a number of striking testimonies were recorded - many with overtones of whistleblowing - regarding the severe, negative environmental impacts of the use of pesticides.
Reports of papaya trees that are unable to produce papayas in the cities evaluated; reports of contamination of water tables used to supply the region; reports of dead fish floating in rivers and identification of a decrease in the number of fish in rivers that bathe the regions surrounding arable land; destruction of fresh vegetables and disappearance of certain animals, such as the partridge, are proof of this reality, corroborating studies by some authors, including Moreira et al.
Cien Saude Colet ; 10 4 Given their work in the health sector, employees and managers from the municipal health departments provided reports associating the use of pesticides with some diseases, such as cancer, particularly in young people, an increasing mortality rate, congenital defects, miscarriages, depression, suicide attempts and others.
They also identified the incidence of respiratory "problems" among the population, particularly during periods of pesticide application. These opinions back studies by Armas et al. The role of municipal institutions in surveillance of the use of pesticides Health Municipal health departments assume a lack of public interest in health surveillance actions in cities that make up the agribusiness productive chain, as local society recognizes this economic model as a job creator that provides income to the population, either directly or indirectly.
Many report that they are unable to risk reducing annual agricultural production. Furthermore, the possibility of limiting the interest of economic groups in continued investment in the region serves as a disincentive against any institutional initiative, particularly those from the health sector, which seeks to evaluate the health effects of the use of pesticides.
This action would lead to a challenge between rural producers and the municipal political oligarchy. In addition to a lack of political interest in implementing health surveillance actions regarding the impacts of pesticide use, many allege a limited number of professionals in municipal teams and lack of training to execute actions of this kind; uncertainty regarding the understanding of the technology necessary to comply with health surveillance duties, due to a lack of training in these activities, as no courses or specialized training are offered in the region, together with a lack of municipal legislation specific to the health sector's surveillance of pesticide use.
It is important to note that in truth, many seem to forget that the duties described in the Health Organic Act no. The discourses show non-compliance with basic aspects of the Act no. It is common knowledge however, that from a methodological point of view, heavy metals and certain active ingredients found in pesticides can only be analyzed using technology that neither the cities studied nor the state of Mato Grosso possess. Another important characteristic of this water control action is related to the outsourcing of this activity by a portion of the cities in question.
In some cities, third-party companies supply water and are contractually responsible for analysis, delivering results to Municipal Health Department. It is important to note that municipal health surveillance is responsible for caring for the quality of food and water to be consumed by the population, in accordance with SUS legislation, also known as Act no. Actions commonly executed by Epidemiological Surveillance in cities include notification of cases of swine flu, dengue, leprosy and tuberculosis, as well as campaigns to control sexually transmitted diseases.
Similar to other surveillance initiatives, the Epidemiological Surveillance only complies with federal and state legislation, skirting issues of pesticide use. SMS and ERS employees, particularly those responsible for Epidemiological Surveillance, recognize instances of underreporting of acute intoxication, providing a number of justifications: the fact that healthcare teams confuse certain symptoms with allergic reactions, fevers, etc. Connect to add to a playlist. Add Videos on this page Add a video related to this sheet music.
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